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Unique solutions

The BUHLMANN Group has been standing for premium products since 1945. However, it is not only our goods which are first class, the scope of our storage capacity is unparalleled.

All steel pipes and fittings are available in standard and non-standard wall thicknesses as well as seamless or welded in all materials:

  • DIN / EN pipes
  • ASTM / ASME / API pipes
  • DIN / EN fittings
  • ASTM / ASME fittings
  • ASTM / ASME high pressure fittings

The stock range of the BUHLMANN Group also includes all common and standard flanges in all pressure ratings and sealing surfaces in all materials:

  • ASTM / ASME / API flanges

We also offer you products made of copper, brass, CuNi, aluminium and steel. If you are interested, please contact our experts via nonferrous@buhlmann-group.com. If you are interested in nickel-based materials in any form, please contact our competence center via specialmaterials@buhlmann-group.com.

The BUHLMANN Group also provides various extras such as special fittings based on drawings or pipes made of round steel. But parts, chamfers, reboring, turning and special work are common extras which are available on request.


Product tables





Standard Material Test class Comment Standard Material Standard Material
API 5L Grade B PSL1 welded A234 / ANSI B16.9 WPB A105 / ANSI B16.5 A105N
API 5L X52 PSL2 welded A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY52 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F52
API 5L X60 PSL2 welded A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY60 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F60
API 5L X65 PSL2 welded A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY65 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F65
API 5L X70 PSL2 welded A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY70 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F70
API 5L Grade B PSL1 seamless A234 / ANSI B16.9 WPB A105 / ANSI B16.5 A105N
API 5L X42N PSL1 seamless A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY42 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F42
API 5L X52N PSL1 seamless A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY52 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F52
API 5L X52N PSL2 seamless A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY52 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F52
API 5L X60Q PSL2 seamless A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY60 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F60Q
API 5L X65Q PSL2 seamless A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY65 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F65Q
API 5L X70Q PSL2 seamless A860 / ANSI B16.9 WPHY70 A694 / ANSI B16.5 F70Q

Pipes are available in single and double lengths.

Pipes, fittings and flanges are available in all standard and special – e.g. extremely thick-walled – dimensions.





Standard Material Comment Standard Material Standard Material
A/SA106 Grade B A/SA234 WPB A/SA105 A105N
A/SA106 Grade C A/SA234 WPC A/SA105 A105N
A/SA335 / 209 P1 / T1 A/SA234 WP1 A/SA182 F1
A/SA335 / 213 P5 / T5 A/SA234 WP5 A/SA182 F5
A/SA335 / 213 P9 / T9 A/SA234 WP9 A/SA182 F9
A/SA335 / 213 P11 / T11 A/SA234 WP11 A/SA182 F11
A/SA335 / 213 P12 / T12 A/SA234 WP12 A/SA182 F12
A/SA335 / 213 P22 / T22 A/SA234 WP22 A/SA182 F22
A/SA335 / 213 P91 / T91 A/SA234 WP91 A/SA182 F91
A/SA335 / 213 P92 / T92 A/SA234 WP92 A/SA182 F92
A/SA333 Grade 3 Low temperature A/SA420 WPL3 A/SA350 LF3
A/SA333 Grade 6 Low temperature A/SA420 WPL6 A/SA350 LF2

Pipes are available in single and double lengths.

Pipes, fittings and flanges are available in all standard and special – e.g. extremely thick-walled – dimensions.





Standard Material short name Material number Test class Comment Standard Material Material number Standard Material Material number
EN 10216-2 / 10217-5 P235GH 1.0345 TC1 EN 10253-2 P235GH 1.0345 EN 1092-1 P250GH 1.0460
EN 10216-2 P235GH 1.0345 TC2 With ultrasonic test EN 10253-2 P265GH 1.0345 EN 1092-1 P250GH 1.0460
EN 10216-2 P265GH 1.0425 TC1 EN 10253-2 P265GH 1.0425 EN 1092-1 P280GH 1.0426
EN 10216-2 P265GH 1.0425 TC2 With ultrasonic test EN 10253-2 P265GH 1.0425 EN 1092-1 P280GH 1.0426
EN 10216-2 16Mo3 1.5415 TC2 With ultrasonic test EN 10253-2 16Mo3 1.5415 EN 1092-1 16Mo3 1.5415
EN 10216-2 13CrMo4-5 1.7335 TC2 With ultrasonic test EN 10253-2 13CrMo4-5 1.7335 EN 1092-1 13CrMo4-5 1.7355
EN 10216-2 10CrMo9-10 1.7380 TC2 With ultrasonic test EN 10253-2 10CrMo9-10 1.7380 EN 1092-1 10CrMo9-10 1.7380
EN 10216-2 15NiCuMoNb5-6-4 1.6368 TC2 WB36
With ultrasonic test
EN 10253-2 15niCuMoNb5-6-4 1.6368 EN 1092-1 15niCuMoNb5-6-4 1.6368
EN 10216-2 X20CrMoV11-1 1.4922 TC2 With ultrasonic test EN 10253-2 X20crMoV11-1 1.4922 EN 1092-1 X20crMoV11-1 1.4922
EN 10216-2 X10CrMoVNb9-1 1.4903 TC2 With ultrasonic test EN 10253-2 X10CrMoVNb9-1 1.4903 EN 1092-1 X10CrMoVNb9-1 1.4903
EN 10216-2 X10CrWMoVNb9-2 1.4901 TC2 With ultrasonic test EN 10253-2 X10CrWoMoVNb9-2 1.4901 EN 1092-1 X10CrWoMoVNb9-2 1.4901
VDTuev 560/2 X12CrCoWMoVNb12-2-2 1.4915 TC2 VM12
EN 10216-4 P215NL 1.0451 TC1 Low temperature EN 10253-2 P215NL 1.0451 EN 1092-1 P355QH1 1.0571
EN 10216-4 P255QL 1.0452 TC1 Low temperature EN 10253-2 P255QL 1.0452 EN 1092-1 P355QH1 1.0571
EN 10216-4 P265NL 1.0453 TC1 Low temperature EN 10253-2 P355QH1 1.0571

Steel line pipes



Standard Material short name Material number Comment Standard Material Material number Standard Material Material number
EN 10208-1 L235GA 1.0458 welded EN 10253-2 P235GH 1.0345 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P250GH 1.0460
EN 10208-1 L290GA 1.0483 welded EN 10253-2 L290NB 1.0484 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P355NH 1.0565
EN 10208-2 L245NB 1.0457 welded EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P250GH 1.0460
EN 10208-2 L245MB 1.0418 welded EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P250GH 1.0460
EN 10208-2 L290NB 1.0484 seamless EN 10253-2 L290NB 1.0484 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P355NH 1.0565
EN 10208-2 L360NB 1.0582 seamless / welded EN 10253-2 L2360NB 1.0582 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P355NH 1.0565
EN 10208-2 L360MB 1.0578 welded EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P355NH 1.0565
EN 10208-2 L360QB 1.8948 seamless EN 10253-2 L360QB 1.8948 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P355NH 1.0565
EN 10208-2 L415NB 1.8972 seamless / welded EN 10253-2 L415NB 1.8932 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P420NH 1.8932
EN 10208-2 L415MB 1.8973 welded EN 10253-2 L415QB 1.8947 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P420NH 1.8932
EN 10208-2 L415QB 1.8947 seamless EN 10253-2 L415QB 1.8947 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P420NH 1.8932
EN 10208-2 L450MB 1.8975 welded EN 10253-2 L450QB 1.8952
EN 10208-2 L450QB 1.8952 seamless EN 10253-2 L450QB 1.8952
EN 10208-2 L485MB 1.8977 welded EN 10253-2 L485QB 1.8955
EN 10208-2 L485QB 1.8955 seamless EN 10253-2 L485QB 1.8955
EN 10216-3 P275NL1 1.0488 seamless
EN 10216-3 P275NL2 1.1104 seamless
EN 10216-3 P355NH 1.0565 seamless EN 10253-2 P355NH 1.0565 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P355NH 1.0565
EN 10216-3 P355NL1 1.0566 seamless EN 10253-2 P355NL1 1.0566 EN 1092-1 / ANSI B16.5 P355NL1 1.0566
EN 10216-3 P355NL2 1.1106 seamless
EN 10216-3 P460NH 1.8935 seamless EN 10253-2 P460NH 1.8935
EN 10216-3 P460NL1 1.8915 seamless EN 10253-2 P460NL1 1.8915
EN 10216-3 P460NL2 1.8918 seamless EN 10253-2 P460NL2 1.8918

Pipes are available in single and double lengths.

Pipes, fittings and flanges are available in all standard and special – e.g. extremely thick-walled – dimensions.

Mechanical Tubes

In addition to its traditional portfolio, the BUHLMANN Group offers a wide selection of tubes for the mechanical engineering and construction sectors. Customers are machine and plant manufacturers or manufacturers of construction and agricultural machinery, but they can also be found in the areas of tool manufacturing and apparatus engineering. We also offer solutions for customers in the construction industry, in particular for bridges, cranes, anchorages and buildings.

For this purpose we offer quality solutions for seamless and welded hollow sections (round and square), precision steel tubes, hydraulic tubes, mother pipes for cylinder construction and thick wall tubes, for example as a substitute for round steel, in the materials listed below.

Tubes for mechanical applications

E235 E275 E355
E420 E470 E590 (QT)
16MnCr5 20MnV6(QT)

Tubes for mechanical applications (quenched and tempered steel)

25CrMo4 42CrMo4 C45

Pipes for steel construction

S275J0H S355J2H S420MH
S460NH S690QL S890QL


  • Pipes
  • Fittings
  • Flanges
  • Forgings
  • Other accessories like wall bushings, eyelets, bolts & nuts etc.
  • RCC-M Class 1,2, 3 & X
  • RCC-M Article 222
  • EN + special requirements
  • Welded and seamless
  • Carbon, stainless, alloy and super duplex steel

Special Materials

The BUHLMANN Group, as an expert in the sector of Special Materials, supplies pipes, tubes, fittings and flanges made of duplex, nickel alloys, titanium and other special grades. These kind of materials are applied in the chemical process industry, in power engineering, the oil and gas industry and for the production of phosphate fertilizer and industrial furnaces as well.


Material grade

Material number

Alloy 200 N02200 2.4066
Alloy 201 N02201 2.4068
Alloy 400 N04400 2.4360
Alloy 600 N06600 2.4851
Alloy 625 N06625 2.4856
Alloy 718 N07718 2.4668
Alloy 800H N08810 1.4876
Alloy 800 HT N08811 1.4876
Alloy 825 N08825 2.4858
Alloy 926 N08926 1.4529
Alloy 20 N08020 2.4660
Alloy 31 N08031 1.4562
Alloy 59 N06059 2.4605
Zirconium 702 R60702
Alloy B-2 N10665 2.4617
Allloy B-3 N10675 2.4600
Alloy C-4 N06455 2.4610
Alloy C-276 N10276 2.4819
Alloy C-22 N06200 2.4602
Alloy C-2000 N06200 2.4675
Titan Grad 2 R50400 3.7035
Titan Grad 5 R56400 3.7165
Titan Grad 7 R52400 3.7235
Duplex S31803 1.4462
Superduplex S32750 1.4410
TP304HCu S30432 1.4907
TP347HFG S34710 1.4908
TP310HCbN S31042 1.4952

And all other special grades.

Stainless steel




Standard Material Material number Test class Comment Standard Material Material number Standard Material Material number
EN 10216-5 X5CrNi18-10 1.4301 TC2 / TC1 EN 10253-4 X5CrNi18-10 1.4301 EN 1092-1 X5CrNi18-10 1.4301
EN 10216-5 X2CrNi19-10 1.4306 TC2 / TC1 seamless EN 10253-4 X2CrNi19-10 1.4306 EN 1092-1 X2CrNi19-10 1.4306
EN 10216-5 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401 TC2 / TC1 EN 10253-4 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401 EN 1092-1 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401
EN 10216-5 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4404 TC2 / TC1 EN 10253-4 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4404 EN 1092-1 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4404
EN 10216-5 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462 TC2 Duplex EN 10253-4 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462 EN 1092-1 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462
EN 10216-5 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 1.4539 TC2 Superaustenit EN 10253-4 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 1.4539 EN 1092-1 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 1.4539
EN 10216-5 X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541 TC2 EN 10253-4 X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541 EN 1092-1 X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541
EN 10216-5 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 1.4571 TC2 EN 10253-4 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 1.4571 EN 1092-1 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 1.4571
EN 10216-5 X6CrNiNb18-10 1.4550 TC1 seamless EN 10253-4 X6CrNiNb18-10 1.4550 EN1092-1 X6CrNiNb18-10 1.4550
EN 10217-7 X5CrNi18-10 1.4301 TC1 EN 10253-4 X5CrNi18-10 1.4301 EN 1092-1 X5CrNi18-10 1.4301
EN 10217-7 X2CrNi18-9 1.4307 TC1 EN 10253-4 X2CrNi18-9 1.4307 EN 1092-1 X2CrNi18-9 1.4307
EN 10217-7 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401 TC2 / TC1 EN 10253-4 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401 EN 1092-1 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401
EN 10217-7 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4404 TC2 / TC1 EN 10253-4 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4404 EN 1092-1 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4404
EN 10217-7 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462 TC1 Duplex EN 10253-4 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462 EN 1092-1 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 1.4462
EN 10217-7 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 1.4539 TC1 Superaustenit EN 10253-4 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 1.4539 EN 1092-1 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 1.4539
EN 10217-7 X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541 TC2 EN 10253-4 X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541 EN 1092-1 X6CrNiTi18-10 1.4541
EN 10217-7 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 1.4571 TC2 EN 10253-4 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 1.4571 EN 1092-1 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 1.4571
A312 TP 304/L seamless / welded A403 / ANSI B16.9 WP 304/L A182 / ANSI B16.5 F 304/L
A312 TP 304/H seamless A403 / ANSI B16.9 WP 304H A182 / ANSI B16.5 F 304/H
A312 TP 316/L seamless / welded A403 / ANSI B16.9 WP 316/L A182 / ANSI B16.5 F 316/L
A312 TP 321/H seamless A403 / ANSI B16.9 WP 321/H A182 / ANSI B16.5 F 321/H
A312 TP 316Ti seamless A815 / ANSI B16.9 F 316Ti A182 / ANSI B16.5 F 316Ti
A790 S31803 Duplex / seamless A403 / ANSI B16.9 S31803 A182 / ANSI B16.5 F 51
A312 TP 347/H High temperature / seamless A403 / ANSI B16.9 WP 347/H A182 / ANSI B16.5 F 347/H
A312 N08904 Superaustenit / seamless A403 / ANSI B16.9 WP 904L A182 / ANSI B16.5 F 904L

Pipes are available in single and double lengths.

Pipes, fittings and flanges are available in all standard and special – e.g. extremely thick-walled – dimensions.




Size:  2” to 24”
Pressure Class: ANSI class 150 – 300 – 600
Body/Bonnet ASTM Material: A216 WCB – A352 LCB – A351 CF8M (from end 2023 on)
End connections: RF, RTJ
API Trim: 5, 8, 12 NACE, 16 NACE
Manufacturer: NEWAY


Size: 0.25” to 2”
Pressure Class: ANSI class 800, 150, 300
Body/Bonnet ASTM Material: A105N – A350 LF2 – A182 F11 -A182 F5 – A182 F316L – A182 F321
End connections: Socket weld, Threaded, Flanged
Body/Bonnet connections: Bolted, Welded
API Trim: 8, 5, 12 NACE, 16 NACE
Manufacturers: BONNEY FORGE, OMB

Valves in stock are subject to “above standard” Non Destructive Examination testing during production, visual inspection prior to shelving and prior to shipping to customers. Our inventory can be further expanded according to our customers’ specific MRO needs.


  • Gate, Globe, Check Valves
  • Ball Valves
  • Butterfly Valves
  • Plug Valves
  • Lined Valves
  • Diapraghm Valves
  • Bellows Seal Valves
  • Pressure Seal Valves
  • HF Acid Valves

The sourcing program for projects and turn arounds can be run based on our customers’ specific Approved Manufacturer List and/or specifications if applicable. Our valve team has multiple years of return on experience and can take an advisory role. For urgent needs, we can offer Fast Track solutions. Our services include the organization of additional testing, inspection and expediting in accordance with customer specific requirements.

The BUHLMANN Glossary of Terms

A: From "Air Frame Tubin" to "Austenitic Steel"

Air Frame Tubing This tubing is produced for aircraft structural parts. It is made to meet special features regarding surface quality, mechanical properties and other characteristics required by Military Specifications (MIL-T – . . . ) and SAE Aeronautical Materials Specifications. (AMS.).
Aircraft Quality This is a steel which has a special cleanliness rating determined by magnetic particle testing. The terms Aircraft Quality and Magnafux Quality are considered synonymous.
Air-Hardening Steel A steel containing sufficient carbon and other alloying elements to harden fully during cooling in air or other gaseous mediums from a temperature above its transformation range. Same as self-hardening steel.
Alloy Steel Steel containing significant quantities of alloying elements (other than carbon and commonly accepted amounts manganese, silicon, sulphur and phosphorus) added to effect changes in the mechanical or physical properties.
Aluminium Killed Steel A steel where aluminium has been used as a de-oxidising agent.
Annealing Annealing is a heat treatment process that involves specified cooling after holding the material at an annealing temperature for some time. The essential purpose of heat treatment is to adjust the physical and mechanical properties to a desired state and to produce a specific microstructure.
ANSI American National Standards Institute.
API American Petroleum Institute is the US trade association for the oil and gas as well as petrochemical industry.
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM ASTM International (American Society for Testing Material) is an organisation for issuing standard specification on materials, including metals and alloys.
Austenitic Stainless Steel Low carbon, iron-chromium-nickel stainless alloys containing more than 16% chromium, with sufficient nickel to provide an austenitic structure at normal temperatures. These alloys cannot be hardened by heat treatment, but can be hardened by cold working. They are normally non-magnetic, but can be slightly magnetic depending upon composition and amount of cold working.
Austenitic  A solid solution of one or more elements in face-centered cubic iron.
Austenitic Steel Steel which, because of the presence of alloying elements, such as manganese, nickel, chromium, etc., shows stability of austenite at normal temperatures.

B: From "Bearing Quality Steels" to "Brinell Hardness Test"

Bearing Quality Steels Steels suitable for use in balls, rollers, and races of high quality anti-friction bearings
Bend Radius The inside radius of a bent section.
Bend Test A test for determining relative ductility of metal, usually sheet strip, plate, pipes or wire for determining
soundness and toughness of metal. The specimen is usually bent over a specified number of cycles.
Bevel An angular cut on the I.D. or O.D. of a product.
Billet Used in the manufacture of seamless tubes, a round bar with dimensions and other characteristics suitable for piercing into tubing.
Bloom A semi-finished piece of steel, resulting from the rolling or forging of an ingot. A bloom is square or not more than twice as wide as thick and usually not less than 36-sq. in. in cross-sectional area.
Borescope An optical device used for inspecting the inside surface of tubes under low magnification.
Bright Annealing Bright annealing is the heat treatment of steel and non-ferrous metals under a nitrogen-hydrogen atmosphere.
Brinell Hardness Test In the Brinell hardness test, a hard metal ball (diameter 1; 2.5; 5 and 10 mm) is pressed vertically into the smooth, cleaned specimen with a specific test force F. This produces a mostly round impression on the surface of a specimen. The diameters of the impression is then measured, for example with the aid of a measuring microscope. The diameter of the impression is used for calculation of the hardness of a metal.

C: From "Camber" to "Cyaniding"

Camber The amount of curvature or deviation form exact straightness over any specified length of tubing
Capped Steel Semi-killed steel which has characteristics similar to those of rimmed steels but to a degree intermediate between rimmed and killed steel. The capping operation limits the time of gas evolution and prevents the formation of an excessive number of gas voids within the ingot.
Carbide A compound consisting of carbon and other elements.
Carbide Precipitation The phenomenon of carbides coming out of a solid solution, occurring in stainless steel when heated into the range of 800-1600 degrees Fahrenheit (mostly formed during welding or hot forming).
Carbon Steel A steel consisting essentially of iron, carbon, manganese and silicon. Carbon steel has no minimum content required for aluminum, chromium, cobalt, columbium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zicronium or any other element added to obtain alloying effect.
Carburization Process of increasing the carbon content of steels to enable hardening. Solid (granular or powder), liquid or gaseous carburizing agents are used to enrich the surfaces of iron-based alloys with carbon by heating below the melting temperature. Desired hardness and toughness properties are adjusted by quenching and tempering in the case of high carbon content.
Case Hardening A heat treatment in which the surface (case) of an iron-base alloy is made harder than the interior (core). Any of the following methods may be employed: flame hardening, induction hardening, carburizing, cyaniding, or nitriding.
Charpy Impact Test A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen, usually notched, is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. The absorbed energy is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness.
Check Analysis An analysis of the metal after it has been rolled or formed into semi -finished of finished forms. It is not a check on the ladle analysis, but a check against the chemistry of the product ordered.
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion A physical property value representing the change in length per unit length, the change in area per unit area or the change in volume per unit volume per one degree increase in temperature.
Coil Coiled flat sheet or strip metal usually in one continuous piece or length.
Cold Drawing A process in which tubing is drawn at room temperature through a die and over a mandrel to achieve its final size and to provide better surface finish, closer tolerances, lighter walls, smaller diameters, longer lengths, or a different combination of mechanical properties from those possible through hot finishing or direct welding.
Cold Reduction The reduction of sectional dimensions of a tube by any of a number of types of cold-working operations.
Cold Working Permanent plastic deformation of a metal below its recrystallization temperature.
Conditioning The removal of surface defects (seams, laps, pits, etc.) from steel. Conditioning is usually done when the steel is in semi-finished condition (bloom, billet, slab). It may be accomplished, after an inspection, by chipping, scarfing, grinding, or machining.
Continuous Pickling Passing sheet or strip metal continuously through a series of pickling and washing tanks.
Copper Sulfate Test An intergranular corrosion test for stainless steels. The specimen is placed in boiling copper-sulfate-sulfuric acid for 24 hours after which it is bent to expose any surface intergranular attack. This test is often preferred over the Huey test because it requires much less time.
Corrosion  Chemical or electrochemical deterioration of a metal or alloy.
Corrosion Resistance The ability to resist attack by corrosion.
Creep Strength The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given time at a constant temperature. It is a measure of a tube’s ability to withstand prolonged stress or load without significant continuous deformation. In steels it is an important factor only at elevated temperatures.
Cross Rolling Rolling at an angle to the long dimension of the metal; usually done to increase width.
Crown Crown, in plates, sheet, or strips, is characterized by a greater thickness in the middle than at the edges. It may be caused by a deflecting (bending) of the rolls or by worn rolls.
Crystal A physically homogenous solid in which the atoms, ions or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional
repetitive pattern. In metals, usually synonymous with “grain” and “crystallite”.
Cut Length Refers to tubing ordered to a specified length and permitting a tolerance of a standardized fraction of an inch over but nothing under the specified length.
Cyaniding A process in which an iron-base alloy is heated in contact with a cyanide salt so that the surface absorbs carbon and nitrogen. Cyaniding is followed by quenching and tempering to produce a case with a desired combination of hardness and toughness.

D: From "Decarburization" to "Dye Penetrant Inspection"

Decarburization Process in which the carbon content on the surface of the material is consciously or unconsciously reduced as a result of heat treatments. For steels with medium or high carbon content, decarburization leads to a pronounced reduction in the fatigue limit.
Deformation residue Non-elastic or plastic deformation of metal or stress after exceeding the elastic limit.
Density The mass per unit volume of a substance, usually expressed in pounds per cubic inch.
Dimensions (ID) I.D. – Inside Diameter. Specified in the same units as O.D.
Dimensions (OD) O.D . – Outside Diameter. Specified in inches and fractions of an inch, or inches and decimals of an inch. In Europe in mm.
Ductility The ability of a tube to deform plastically. Frequently, elongation during tensile testing is used as a measurement of this property.
Dye Penetrant Inspection Non-destructive test employing dye or fluorescent chemical and sometimes black light to detect surface defects.

E: From "Eccentricity" to "Extrusion"

Eccentricity The displacement of the I.D. of the tube with respect to its O.D. Eccentricity results in the variation of wall thickness normal to seamless tubing.
Eddy Current Test A non-destructive testing method in which an eddy current flux is induced on a test piece. Changes in flux caused by defects and indications on the surface or near the surface are reflected onto a nearby coil and indicated.
Elastic Limit A measure of the maximum stress that may be applied to a material without leaving a permanent deformation or strain after the stress is released.
Electric Furnace Process One of the common methods used for melting and refining stainless and some alloy steels. It involves the use of electric power as the sole source of heat, thereby preventing contamination of the steel by impurities in the fuel as in other melting processes.
Electric Furnace Steel Steel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically, mostly by arc.
Electric Resistance Welded Tubing (ERW) Tubing made from strip, sheet, or bands by electric resistance heating and pressure, the strip being part of the electrical circuit. The electric current, which may be introduced into the strip through electrodes or by induction, generates the welding heat through the electrical resistance of the strip.
Elongation Change in gauge length on a tensile specimen after the test has been performed, usually expressed as a percentage relative to the original gauge length.
Endurance Limit The maximum stress under which a material can presumably endure an infinite number of stress cycles.
Etch Test Exposure of a specimen to acid attack for the purpose of disclosing the presence of foreign matter, defects, segregation pattern, or flow lines.
Extrusion Production process in which steel is forced by compression through a mould into solids (round or special shape) or through a mould and over a mandrel to form a tubular shape.

F: From "Ferritic Steel" to "Fracture Strength"

Ferritic Steel Ferritic stainless steels are divided into two classifications: hardenable and non-hardenable.
When rapidly cooled from elevated temperatures, the non-hardenable grades have a ferritic microstructure. The hardenable grades will assume a martensitic microstructure when cooled quickly from elevated temperatures and are sometimes called martensitic steels.
Flame Hardening A process of heating the surface layer of an iron-base alloy above the transformation temperature range by means of the flame of a high temperature torch, followed by quenching.
Flux Leakage Test Non-destructive test which uses magnetic lines of force to recognize any discontinuity in the test piece.
Forging Used as a general term to describe the rolling, pressing, or hammering of steel which displaces the metal under compression by a locally applied force, usually at hot working temperatures.
Fracture Strength As usually related to the tensile test, fracture strength or true breaking strength is defined as the load on the specimen at the time of fracture.

G: From "Gages" to "Grain Size"

Gages A measurement of thickness. There are various standard gages such as United States Standard Gage (USS), Galvanized Sheet Gage (GSG), Birmingham Wire Gage (BWG).
Galvanic Corrosion Galvanic corrosion occurs when two dissimilar metals are joined together and a current flows through an electrolyte (e.g., water or moisture). This causes ions to flow from one metal to the other, ultimately leading to corrosion of the metal.
Grain Size A measure of the size of individual metallic crystals usually expressed as an average. Grain size is reported as a number in accordance with procedures described in ASTM Grain size specifications.

H: From "Hardenability" to "Hydrostatic Test "

Hardenability The property in steel that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by cooling from a suitable elevated temperature. The hardness can vary with the cooling rate.
Hardening Increasing the hardness resp. strength of steel by suitable treatment, usually involving heating and cooling.
Hardness The degree of resistance of a material to plastic deformation, usually determined by measuring resistance to a penetration.
Heat Treatment A combination of heating and cooling operations applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state to obtain desired conditions or properties. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this definition.
Hot Finished Seamless Tubing Tubing produced by rotary piercing, extrusion, and other hot working processes without subsequent cold finishing operations.
Hot Working The mechanical working of metal above the recrystallization temperature.
Huey Test A corrosion test for stainless steels. The weight loss per unit area is measured after each of five 48-hour boils in 65% nitric acid. The test results are calculated to and reported as the average corrosion rate of the five boils in inches per month (imp) corrosion rates. The test is used to determine the suitability of a material for nitric acid service. Since most of the weight loss is due to intergranular attack, the Huey test can be used as an indication of the resistance of a stainless steel to intergranular corrosion.
Hydrostatic Test  A test in which a liquid, usually water, under pressure, is used internally to detect and locate leaks in a tube of a fabricated structure.

I: From "Impact Energy" to "Iron"

Impact Energy (Impact Value) The amount of energy required to fracture a material, usually measured by means of a charpy test. The type of specimen and testing conditions affect the values and should therefore be specified.
Impact Testing A test to determine the toughness of materials. In this test, the specimens are brought to the desired test temperature and then broken once with a pendulum. The energy required to break the specimen is measured in joules.
Inclusions Non-metallic materials in a solid metallic matrix.
Induction Heating A process of heating by electrical induction.
Ingot A cast metal shape suitable for subsequent rolling or forging.
Ingot Steel ingot formerly in a molten state, transferred to an ingot mould to solidify. After solidification, the resulting shape is called an ingot.
Ingot Mold A mold in which ingots are cast. Molds may be circular, square, or rectangular in shape, with walls of various thicknesses. Some molds are of larger cross section at the bottom, others are larger at the top.
Integral Finned Tubing Tubing with raised surface fins formed from the wall of the tube itself.
Intergranular Corrosion  Corrosion which most likely occurs along the grain boundaries of the alloy.
Iron (Chemical symbol Fe) Chenical Element No. 26 of the periodic table. A magnetic silver-white ductile and malleable metal. The melting point of pure iron lies at 1538°C (1877 K). Chemically, iron is chiefly base forming.
The principal forms of commercial iron are steel, cast iron and wrought iron.

J: "Jominy Test"

Jominy Test A standardized method for determining the hardenability of a material (ASTM A255 or ISO 642).

K: From "Killed" to "Killed Steel"

Killed  The term “killed” indicates that the steel has been sufficiently de-oxidised to quiet the molten metal when poured into the ingot mould. The common practice is to use aluminium ferrosilicon or manganese as de-oxidising agents. A properly killed steel has a more uniform analysis and is comparatively free from ageing. However, for the same carbon and manganese content, killed steel is harder than rimmed steel. In general, all steels above 0.25% carbon are killed, also all forging grades, structural steels from 0.15% to 0.25% carbon, and some special steels in the low carbon range.
Killed Steel Steel deoxidized with an agent such as silicon or aluminum to reduce the free oxygen content so that no harmful reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.

L: From "Ladle" to "Lamination"

Ladle A large vessel into which molten steel or molten slag is received and handled.
Ladle (Heat) Analysis The ladle analysis is taken from the not yet solidified melt and represents a melted or blown-off charge of a steel.
Lamination A defect appearing in sheets or strips as a segregation or in layers. Laminations are caused by gas pores in ingots.

M: From "Machinability" to "Modulus of Elasticity"

Machinability A measure of the relative ease with which steel may be machined.
Machining The deliberate removal of metal by one or more of several processes.
Macrostructure The structure of metals as revealed by examination of the etched surface of a polished specimen at a magnification
not exceeding ten.
Magnaflux Test This test is performed by suitably magnetizing magnetizable material while applying an equally magnetizable powder that adheres to the material along the flux leakage lines. The test indicates the presence of surface and slightly subsurface non-uniformities.
Makro-Etch Etching of metal surface for accentuation of gross structural details and defects for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not exceeding ten.
Mandrel (1) A device used to retain the cavity in hollow metal products during workout.
(2) A metal bar around which other metal may be cast, bent, formed or shaped.
Martensite A distinctive, needle-like structure existing in steel as a transition stage in the transformation of austenite. It is the hardest constituent of steel of eutectoid composition. It is produced by rapid cooling from quenching temperature and is the chief constituent of hardened carbon tool steels. Martensite is magnetic.
McQuaid-Ehn Test A special test for revealing the austenitic grain size of ferritic steels when the steel is heated to 1700F and carburized. There are eight standard McQuaid-Ehn grain sizes – sizes 5 to 8 are considered fine grain and sizes under 5 are considered coarse grain.
Mechanical properties The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behaviour where force is applied, thereby indicating
its suitability for mechanical applications; for example, modulus of elasticity, strength, elongation, hardness, and fatigue limit.
Metallography The science which deals with the extraction of metals from their ores and the adaptation and application of the metals to the uses for which they are intended.
Micro-Etch Micro-etching is used for the examination of a sample under a microscope. Etching solutions tend to reveal structural details because of preferential chemical attack on the polished surface.
Microstructure The structure of polished and etched metal and alloy specimens as revealed by the microscope.
Mill finish  Condition of surface finish of sheets, plates or other steel products.
Minimum Wall Any wall having tolerances specified all on the plus side. Eher: Minimum wall thickness required in a specimen
Modulus of Elasticity The ratio of stress applied to a material and the resulting strain occurring at the stresses below the elastic limit.

N: From "Non-Destructive Testing" to "Normalizing"

Non-Destructive Testing Methods of detecting defects without destroying or permanently changing the material which is being tested. Test methods include ultrasonic, eddy current, flux leakage, magnetic particle, liquid, penetrant, and X-ray.
Normalizing Normalizing is a process which consists of heating to a temperature approximately 100F above the upper critical temperature and cooling in still air.

O: From "Oil Hardening" to "Oxygen Lance"

Oil Hardening Oil quench hardening is a method of hardening alloy steel materials to achieve required strength and hardness properties with lower risk of cracking than water quench processes.
Oil Hardening Steel Steel adaptable to hardening by heat treatment and quenching in oil.
Ovality The difference between the maximum and minimum outside diameters of any one cross section of a tube. It is a measure of deviation from roundness.
Overheating Heating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its properties are impaired. When the original properties
cannot be restored by further heat treating, the overheating is known as burning.
Oxidation A reaction that results in the combination of a chemical element or compound with oxygen.
Oxide A compound consisting of oxygen and one or more metallic elements.
Oxygen Lance A length of pipe used to convey oxygen into a bath of molten metal.

P: From "Pass" to "Pyrometer"

Pass The term given to a single passage of a tube or piece of steel through a roll stand or a drawing die.
Passivation The changing of the chemically active surface of a metal to a much less reactive state. Contrasts with activation.
Pearlite Lamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. A compound of iron and carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide.
Phosphor Bronze Copper-based alloy with 3.5 to 10% tin, to which phosphorus has been added in the molten state in varying amounts of less than 1% for the purpose of deoxidizing and solidification. Due to excellent strength, fine grain, and resistance, these alloys find general use as springs and in the manufacture of fittings. Their corrosion resistance properties are comparable to copper.
Photo Micrograph A photo of a product magnified by more than ten times.
Physical Properties The properties, other than mechanical properties, that pertain to the physics of a material; for example, density, electrical conductivity, heat conductivity, thermal expansion.
Pickling Removing surface oxides from metals by chemical or electrochemical reaction.
Piercing A seamless tube making method in which a hot billet is gripped and rotated by rolls or cones and directed over a pierced tip at the end of a mandrel bar.
Pig Iron  Iron produced by reaction of iron ore in a blast furnace. Pig iron contains approximately 92% iron and about 3.5% carbon. The balance is largely made up of silicone and manganese with small percentages of phosphorus, sulphur, and other impurities.
Pinholes Microscopic imperfections in coatings, i.e. microscopic bare spots. Also a microscopic hole penetrating through
a layer or thickness of thin metal.
Pit A sharp, usually small, depression in the surface of metal.
Pitting Corrosion Pitting corrosion is a non-uniform corrosion usually forming small cavities in the metal surface.
Porosity Unsoundness caused in cast metals by the presence of blowholes or shrinkage cavities.
Post Weld Heat Treatment Heating weldments immediately after welding, for tempering, for stress relieving, or for providing a controlled rate of cooling to prevent formation of a hard or brittle structure.
Pressure pipes Tubing produced for the purpose of containing or conducting fluids or gases under pressure.
Profilometer An instrument used for measuring surface finish. The vertical movements of a stylus as it traverses the surfaces are amplified electromagnetically and recorded (or indicated) as the surface roughness.
Pyrometer Also called infrared thermometer. An instrument for non-contact temperature measurement, especially suitable for high temperatures.

Q: "Quenching"

Quenching A process of rapid cooling from an elevated temperature, by contact with liquids or gases.

R: From "Radiographic test " to "Rimmed Steel"

Radiographic test  An X-ray inspection which is a non-destructive method of testing components for internal defects. High-energy radiation penetrates the workpiece and exposes a film or image converter located behind the object. On the resulting negative image, flaws such as pores, cracks and wall thickness differences can be detected by the reduction of the total thickness caused by these imperfections through different gray values.
Random Length Tubing produced to a permissible variation in length (SRL or DRL).
Reduction of Area The local constriction of metallic materials during a tensile test, in the area of which the fracture of a specimen occurs during the tensile test. The change in cross-section at this point is specified as the Reductioon of Area (Z) in %.
Rimmed Steel A steel which forms a relatively clean outer layer (rim) during solidification. Sheet and strip made from such steel has a good surface quality and is frequently used for ERW tubing.

S: From "Scale" to "Swaged"

Scale An oxide of iron which forms on the surface of hot steel.
Segregation Non-uniform distribution of alloying elements, impurities, or microphases.
Shrinkage (defect)  Contraction cavity, essentially cone-like in shape, which occurs in the approximate center, at the top and reaching down into a casting; caused by the shrinkage of cast metal.
Siemens Martin furnace The Siemens-Martin process is hardly used anymore. It was used to clean pig iron so that steel could be produced. It is one of the so-called hearth-fresh processes. The term goes back to the inventors of the process, Friedrich and Wilhelm Siemens as well as Pierre-Émile Martin and his father Émile Martin.
Soft Annealing An annealing in the temperature range of approx. 1250-1350F. Slow cooling reduces the hardness and strength of a cold-worked steel. This facilitates further processing during rolling, drawing or stamping.
Solution Anneal Heating steel into a temperature range wherein certain elements or compounds dissolve, followed by cooling at a rate sufficient to maintain these elements in solution at room temperature. The expression is normally applied to stainless and other special steels.
Specification A document defining the measurements, tests, and other requirements to which a product must conform. Specification apply to chemistry, mechanical properties, tolerances, finish, reports, marking, and packaging.
Stabilizing Anneal A treatment applied to austenitic stainless steels wherein carbides of various forms are deliberately precipitated. Sufficient additional time is provided at the elevated temperature to diffuse chromium into the areas adjacent to the carbides (usually grain boundaries). This treatment is intended to lessen the chance of intergranular corrosion.
Stainless Steel Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety, but always containing a high percentage of chromium. These are highly resistant to corrosion attack by organic acids, weak mineral acids, atmospheric oxidation, etc.
Stress-Corrosion Cracking Stress corrosion cracking is transcrystalline (within the grain) or intercrystalline (along the grain boundaries) cracking in the presence of a static stress and a simultaneous attack of a corrosive medium.
Strip A flat-rolled steel product which serves as the raw material for welded tubing.
Swaged A mechanical reduction of the cross sectional area of a metal, preformed hot or cold by forging, pressing, or hammering.

T: From "Tapping" to "Turning"

Tapping The act of pouring molten metal from a furnace into a ladle.
Teeming Act of pouring molten metal from a ladle into an ingot mold.
Tempering Reheating quenched or normalized steel to a temperature below the transformation range (lower critical) followed by any desired rate of cooling.
Tensile Strength The maximum load per square inch of original cross-sectional area carried during a tension test to failure of the specimen. This test is preferred over the formerly-used ultimate strength.
Thermal Conductivity A measure of the ease with which heat is transmitted through a material.
Tolerance Permissible variation.
Torsion A twisting action resulting in shear stresses and strains.
Toughness A measure of ability to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing.
Transformation Temperature The temperature at which a change in phase occurs in steels. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range.
Transverse Tension Test A tension test for evaluating mechanical properties of a material in a direction transverse to that of rolling.
Turning A method for removing the surface from a work piece by bringing the cutting edge of a tool against it while the piece or tool is rotated.

U: From "Ultrasonic Testing" to "Unalloyed steel/constructional steel"

Ultrasonic Testing A method of detecting defects in and on steel components using high-frequency sound waves. When ultrasound hits a defect, the sound is reflected and picked up by a probe. The defect can be seen on a monitor accordingly and can be evaluated. The ultrasound is introduced by means of contact agents or by immersion.
Unalloyed steel/constructional steel Steel containing up to about 2% carbon and only residual amounts of other elements except those added for deoxidation, with silicon usually limited to 0.60% and manganese to about 1.65%.

V: From "Vacuum De-Gassing" to "Vickers Hardness Test"

Vacuum De-Gassing (metallurgy) A process for removing gases from a metal either by melting or heating the solid metal in a vacuum.
Vacuum Melting Melting in a vacuum to prevent contamination from air, as well as to remove gases already dissolved in the metal;  the solidification may also be carried out in a vacuum or at low pressure.
Vickers Hardness Test Normalized method to measure the hardness of metals, especially metals with a hard surface. The surface is subjected to a specific pressure for a specific period of time by means of a pyramid-shaped diamond. The diagonal of the resulting indentation is measured under a microscope. The resulting Vickers hardness value is taken from a conversion table.

W: "Water quenching"

Water quenching The process of quenching mild or alloy steels by cooling with or in water after annealing.

Y: From "Yield point" to "Yield stress"

Yield point  The first stress in a material, usually less than the maximum attainable stress, at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. Only certain metals exhibit a yield point. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding, a distinction may be made between upper and lower yield points.
Yield strength The first stress in a material measured as load per unit of original cross-sectional area at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress.
Yield stress The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of 0.2% is used for many metals.